Field of Interest:
Dr Homa Katouzian is the Iran Heritage Foundation Research Fellow, St Antony’s College, and Member, Faculty of Oriental Studies, University of Oxford. He is Senior Editor, Iran Namag, A Quarterly of Iranian Studies; Co-editor, Routledge book series in Iranian Studies; and Editor, International Journal of Persian Literature.
He taught and published in economics for eighteen years, but his recent and current research interests are in Iranian history and politics, the comparative sociology of Iranian and European history, and modern and classical Persian literature. He has worked, as tenured staff or visitor, at Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton; University of California, Los Angeles; University of Leeds; University of California, Sane Diego; University of Kent at Canterbury; Pahlavi University and McMaster University.
“Sin” (Gunah) is probably the most well-known poem of Forugh Farrokhzad, though it is not one of her best, even…
- 1Forugh Farrokhzad, Divar, 3rd printing (Tehran: Amir Kabir, 1969), 13. For a somewhat different translation which makes the poem look more elegant in English, see Zjaleh Hajibashi, “Redefining ‘Sin,’” in in Forugh Farrokhzad, A Quarter Century Later, ed. Michael Craig Hillmann (Austin, Texas: Literature East &West, 1987), 68. Another translation may be found in Another Birth, Selected Poems of Forugh Farrokhzad, trans. Hasan Javadi and Susan Sallée (Emeryville, CA: Albany Press), 11.
- 2Gunah kardam gunahi por ze lazzat / Dar aghushi kih garm o ateshin bud. Here the word garm is completely redundant and has been used to make up the metre. See Farrokhzad, Divar, 13.
- 3Forugh Farraokhzad, Asir, 3rd printing (Tehran: Amir Kabir, 1963), 29. For a somewhat different rendering, see Bride of Acacias, Selected Poems of Forugh Farrokhzad, trans. Jascha Kessler with Amin Banani (Delamar, New York: Caravan Books, 1982), 125.
- 4Farrokhzad, Divar, 15.
- 5Farrokhzad, “Na-ashna” (Stranger), in Asir, 31.
- 6Farrokhzad, “Harja’i” (Tramp), in Asir, 24.
- 7Farrokhzad, “Div-i Shab,” in Asir, 51-3. Kami is short for Kamyar, the name of the poet’s son.
- 8Farrokhzad, “Dar Barabar-i Khuda,” in Asir, 111-14.
- 9See for example, Eric Heller, Kafka (Fontana: London, 1974).
- 10See Dar ghurubi-i abadi, ed. Behruz Jalali (Tehran: Morvarid, 1997), 108. This particular letter (alongside a few to others) has also been published in Zani tanha, Yadnamah-yi Forough Farrokhzad, ed. Hamid Siyahpush (Tehran: Agah, 1997), 210-14.
- 11Jalali, Dar ghurubi-i abadi, 110.
- 12Jalali, Dar ghurubi-i abadi, 112.
- 13Jalali, Dar ghurubi-i abadi, 112.
- 14Jalali, Dar ghurubi-i abadi, 113. This earlier letter is also published in Zani tanha, 209-210.
- 15Jalali, Dar ghurubi-i abadi, 109.
- 16Jalali, Dar ghurubi-i abadi, 115-22.
- 17Jalali, Dar ghurubi-i abadi, 119.
- 18Jalali , Dar ghurubi-i abadi, 113; Zani tanha, 210.
- 19See further Homa Katouzian, Sadeq Hedayat: The Life and Legend of an Iranian Writer (London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2002); “The Wondrous World of Sadeq Hedayat,” in Sadeq Hedayat, His Work and His Wondrous World, ed. Homa Katouzian (London and New York: Routledge, 2008); Eric Heller, Kafka; The World of Franz Kafka, ed. J. P. Stern (London: Weidenfeld and Nicloson, 1980); Ernst Pawel, The Nightmare of Reason: A Life of Franz Kafka (London: Collins Harvill, 1988).
- 20Jalali, Dar ghurubi-i abadi, 116-17.
- 21Jalali, Dar ghurubi-i abadi, 118-19.
- 22Jalali, Dar ghurubi-i abadi, 119-120.
- 23See Amir Esama’ili and Abolqasem Sedarat, Javidanah Furugh Farrukhzad (Tehran: Marjan, 1968), 14.
- 24Esama’ili and Sedarat, Javidanah Furugh Farrukhʹzad, 14.
- 25Esama’ili and Sedarat, Javidanah Furugh Farrukhʹzad, 14.
- 26Esama’ili and Sedarat, Javidanah Furugh Farrukhʹzad, 14.
- 27Esama’ili and Sedarat, Javidanah Furugh Farrukhʹzad, 15.
- 28Esama’ili and Sedarat, Javidanah Furugh Farrukhʹzad, 16.
- 29See Furugh Farrukhzad, “Kasi kih misl-i hich kas nist,” in Iman biyavarim bih aghaz-i fasl-i sard [Let Us Have Faith in the Onset of the Cold Season], 9th printing (Tehran: Morvarid, 1991), 80-8. I have benefitted from the following English translation, but the rendering in the text is my own: “One Like No Other,” trans. Kessler with Banani, in Bride of Acacias, 112-15.
- 30See Furugh Farrukhzad, “Dar khiyaban-ha-ya sard-i shab’ in Tavalludi digar, 4th printing (Tehran: Morvrid, 1969), 83-6. I have benefitted from the three following English translations, but the rendering in the text is my own: “In Night’s Cold Street,” trans. Kessler with Banani, in Bride of Acacias, 49-50; “In the Cold Streets of Night,” in A Rebirth: Poems by Foroogh Farrokhzad, trans. David Martin (Lexington: Mazda Publishers, 1985), 43-6; and “In the Cold Streets of Night,” trans. Javadi and Sallée, in Another Birth, 42-3.
- 31Furugh Farrukhzad, “Iman biyavarim bih aghaz-i fasl-i sard,” in Iman biyavarim bih aghaz-i fasl-i sard, 23-43. I have benefitted from the following three English translations, but the rendering in the text is my own: “Let Us Believe in the Oncoming Season of Cold,” trans. Kessler with Banani, in Bride of Acacias, 95-102; “Let’s Bring Faith to the Onset of the Cold Season,” trans. Martin, in A Rebirth, 113-22; “Let Us Believe in the Beginning of a Cold Season,” trans. Javadi and Sallée, in Another Birth, 65-76.