Fakhr-i ʿUzmā Arghūn was a poetess, translator, author, educator, journalist, and activist. She was born in 1279/1900 in Tehran. From her first marriage she had a daughter who later became the renowned Iranian poetess Sīmīn Bihbihānī. She became the proprietor of several newspapers and journals dedicated to the female cause. She wrote many poems which were published in various newspapers, and she was an avid author and translator until her death in 1344/1965.